Soil water and nitrogen in Mediterranean-type environments



Publisher: Nijhoff, Publisher: Distributed by Kluwer Boston in The Hague, Boston, Hingham, MA

Written in English
Cover of: Soil water and nitrogen in Mediterranean-type environments |
Published: Pages: 338 Downloads: 943
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Places:

  • Africa, North,
  • Middle East

Subjects:

  • Dry farming -- Africa, North -- Congresses.,
  • Dry farming -- Middle East -- Congresses.,
  • Soil moisture -- Africa, North -- Congresses.,
  • Soil moisture -- Middle East -- Congresses.,
  • Soils -- Nitrogen content -- Africa, North -- Congresses.,
  • Soils -- Nitrogen content -- Middle East -- Congresses.,
  • Mediterranean climate -- Congresses.

Edition Notes

Other titlesPlant and soil.
Statementedited by John Monteith and Colin Webb.
SeriesDevelopments in plant and soil sciences ;, v. 1
ContributionsMonteith, John Lennox., Webb, Colin., International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas., United Nations Development Programme.
Classifications
LC ClassificationsSB110 .S7 1981
The Physical Object
Paginationxviii, 338 p. :
Number of Pages338
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL3833820M
ISBN 109024724066
LC Control Number81147285

Harold van Es is a Professor of Soil and Water Management with extension, research and teaching duties. He works on approaches to precision soil management, with current emphases on a holistic soil health management framework, and a computational tool for precision nitrogen management (Adapt-N) that was recently commercialized. He has published over peer reviewed papers and chapters, co. g = mass of water / mass of dry soil - (kg/kg) q g = (wet soil –dry soil) / dry soil 2. Water content by volume: q v = volume of water / volume of bulk soil - (m 3/m3) q v = q g r b /r l = r b q g 3. Volume of water in soil is also often expressed by equivalent depth of water, D e: D e = Volume water / Soil Surface area (units in cm, m.   We used the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to predict and explain maize and soybean yields, phenology, and soil water and nitrogen (N) dynamics during the growing season in Iowa, USA. Historical, current and forecasted weather data were used to drive simulations, which were released in public four weeks after planting. In this paper, we (1) describe the .   The conversion of grasslands and pastures into chemical-driven, industrial crop land has eliminated much of the natural filtering of ground water that such native landscapes typically provide. Health risks of nitrogen include a potential connection to cancer, as well as thyroid and reproductive problems in both humans and livestock.

Soil water and nitrogen in Mediterranean-type environments Download PDF EPUB FB2

Soil Water and Nitrogen in Mediterranean-type Environments. Authors: Soil water and nitrogen in Mediterranean-type environments book, John Editors: Monteith, John, Webb, Colin (Eds.) Free PreviewBrand: Springer Netherlands. Soil, Water and Nitrogen In Mediterranean-Type Environments. Editors: Monteith, J., Webb, Colin (Eds.).

Soil Water and Nitrogen In Mediterranean-type Environments edited by JOHN MONTEITH and COLIN WEBB DEVELOPMENTS IN PLANT AND SOIL SCIENCES 1pp. Cloth Dfl. /USS ISBN Also published as volume 58 of 'Plant and Soil'.

This book provides a continuing record of the current state of knowledge about sou. Get this from a library. Soil water and nitrogen in Mediterranean-type environments.

[John L Monteith; Colin Webb; International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas.; United Nations Development Programme.;] -- "Based on a workshop, organized by the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, which was sponsored by the International Center for.

Soil, Water and Nitrogen: In Mediterranean-Type Environments - Developments in Plant and Soil Sciences 1 (Hardback) J. Monteith (editor), Colin Webb (editor)Book Edition: Ed. To support researchers to publish their research Open Access, deals have been negotiated with various publishers.

Depending on the deal, a discount is provided for the author on the Article Processing Charges that need to be paid by the author to publish an article Open Access.

Issues of nitrogen from its effects on crops and human nutrition to nitrogen in ground water, watersheds, streams, rivers, and coastal marine environments are discussed to provide a broad view of the problem and support scientists, researchers, and engineers in formulating comprehensive solutions.

The book offers a larger perspective of soil’s impact on the environment by organizing chapters among three main processes: Physical, Chemical, and Biology.

It is organized in a student-friendly format with examples, discussion boxes, and key definitions in every chapter. Johnson, M. Rumbaugh, K. Asay, Plant improvement for semi-arid rangelands: possibilities for drought resistance and nitrogen fixation, Soil Water and Nitrogen in Mediterranean-type Environments, /, (), ().

Nitrogen is the nutrient most often deficient for crop production in Minnesota, and its use can result in substantial economic return for farmers. However, when N inputs to the soil system exceed crop needs, there’s a possibility that excessive amounts of nitrate (NON) may enter either ground or surface water.

Neil C. Turner, John E. Begg, Plant-water relations and adaptation to stress, Soil Water and Nitrogen in Mediterranean-type Environments, /, (), (). Crossref S. Nagarajah, G. Ratnasuriya, Clonal variability in root growth and drought resistance in tea (Camellia sinensis), Plant and Soil, /BF Forms of nitrogen in water.

Overview. Nitrogen enters water in numerous forms, including both inorganic and organic forms (Figure 1). The primary inorganic forms of N are ammonia, ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite.

Organic-nitrogen (organic-N) is found in proteins, amino acids, urea, living or dead organisms (i.e., algae and bacteria) and. Nitrogen compounds are both oxidized and reduced by organisms. Some nitrogen compounds are adsorbed on clay. The theoretical end product in water and the compound probably most often determined is NO 3 −1.

The concentration of nitregen compounds ranges from to > ppm (parts per million) in surface water and from to > ppm in. Crop production in Mediterranean-type environments is invariably limited by low and erratic rainfall (– mm year−1), and thus soil moisture, and by high evapotranspiration resulting from.

A soluble substance, nitrogen soaks deeply into the soil after a rainstorm or after irrigation, reaching ground water and nearby wells. When babies under a year old and elderly people ingest water.

because it was first studied in aerobic environments, with oxygen as the element that accepts the electrons (and thus increases in quantity in the new molecule). A common redox reaction occurs in the soil when ammonia is added: In the presence of oxygen, ammonia (Nh 3) is oxidized to form nitric acid (hNo 3, which now contains oxygen) and water.

Nitrogen fixation is a process by which molecular nitrogen in the air is converted into ammonia (NH 3) or related nitrogenous compounds in soil. Atmospheric nitrogen is molecular dinitrogen, a relatively nonreactive molecule that is metabolically useless to all but a few ical nitrogen fixation converts N 2 into ammonia, which is metabolized by most organisms.

Nitrogen Behavior in the Environment. Manure and commercial fertilizers contain nutrients essential for plant growth. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are the most critical of these nutrients. This publication outlines some basic information about nitrogen and its interaction in the environment.

Nitrogen (N) deposition is a threat to European Mediterranean ecosystems, but the evidence of real ecological impacts is still scarce. We combined data from a real N deposition gradient ( kg N ha −1 yr −1) from semiarid portions of Spain with data from a field experiment in central Spain to evaluate N deposition effects on soil fertility, function and cyanobacteria community structure.

Environmental Nitrogen Cycle: In general, the following describes the activity of nitrates and nitrites in the environment (as illustrated in Figure 2). Microbial action in soil or water decomposes wastes containing organic nitrogen into ammonia, which is then oxidized to nitrite and nitrate.

This book discusses availability, production, and recycling of N in air, water, plants, and soils. It features information on N impacts to soil and water quality, management of N in agroecosystems, and techniques to maximize the use efficiency while minimizing the risks of leakage of reactive N into the environment.

pest attack and diseases, water retention capacity of soil, and lessening of salinity effects on soil and irrigation. This has been report ed in the literature [11,47].

Andisol soil group. In Andisol and in volcanic regions of Mediterranean countries. Read More; occurrence in Africa.

In Africa: Mediterranean soils. Mediterranean soils are generally deficient in humus, not so much because of sparse vegetation cover as because of the slowness of the chemical processes that convert the vegetable matter to.

Plants do not get their nitrogen directly from the air. Although nitrogen is the most abundant element in the air, every nitrogen atom in the air is triple-bonded to another nitrogen atom to form molecular nitrogen, N triple bond is very strong and very hard to break (it takes energy to break chemical bonds whereas energy is only released when bonds are formed).

The Soil Health Partnership, which combines agribusiness funding with technical advice from the Environmental Defense Fund and the Nature Conservancy, works to scale up three solutions to the nitrogen problem—use of off-season cover crops to reduce the runoff that inevitably occurs when fields remain bare through the winter, low- or no-till.

A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, "a plant in the wrong place". Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields, gardens, lawns, and parks.

Taxonomically, the term "weed" has no botanical significance, because a plant that is a weed in one context is not a weed when growing in a situation where it is in fact wanted, and.

The level of nitrogen fixation is determined by several factors, including soil temperature (Azospirillum species thrive in more temperate and/or tropical environments), the ability of the host.

Soil Science Society of America Book Series Books in the series are available from the Soil Science Society of America, South Segoe Road, Madison, WI USA. MINERALS IN SOIL ENVIRONMENTS. Second Edition. J.B. Dixon and S. Weed, editors R. Dinauer, managing editor 2. PESTICIDES IN THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT: PROCESSES, IMPACTS.

Soil pH. Soil pH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity (basicity) of a soil, and is reported as a value between 0 and A soil test for pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions in the soil solution. A pH of is considered neutral. A pH value below indicates that the soil is acidic, with lower values representing increasing.

In media where water is usually present, such as soil, plants, biological tissue, and water itself, ammonia and ammonium are in dynamic equilibrium.

Ammonia is a key intermediate in the nitrogen cycle, a natural cycle that is coupled with other important biological cycles (i.e., the sulfur cycle and carbon cycle).

An understanding of the role. The source of ammonium may differentially influence AOA and AOB as it was shown that AOA would be favored by ammonium derived from soil OM or in environments with low ammonium concentrations (Stopnišek et al., ; Pester et al., ; Levičnik-Höfferle et al., ) while AOB abundance was shown to increase when soils were amended by.

Nitrogen is an important macronutrient because it is part of nucleic acids and proteins. Atmospheric nitrogen, which is the diatomic molecule N 2, or dinitrogen, is the largest pool of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems.

However, plants cannot take advantage of this nitrogen because they do not have the necessary enzymes to convert it into biologically useful forms.Nitrogen Cycle is a biogeochemical process through which nitrogen is converted into many forms, consecutively passing from the atmosphere to the soil to organism and back into the atmosphere.

It involves several processes such as nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, decay and putrefaction.